Cooks love their gadgets, from countertop slow cookers to instant read thermometers. Now there is growing interest in magnetic induction cooktops – surfaces that cook much faster than conventional cookers without lighting a flame or heating an electric coil.
Some of that attention is overdue. Induction has long been popular in Europe and Asia, and is more energy efficient than standard stovetops. But recent studies have also raised concerns about indoor air emissions from gas stoves.
University researchers and agencies such as the California Air Resources Board have reported that gas stoves can release dangerous air pollutants during operation and even when turned off. A 2022 study by American and Australian researchers estimates that nearly 13% of current childhood asthma cases in the United States are attributable to the use of gas stoves.
Dozens of US cities have passed or are considering regulations prohibiting natural gas hookups in new homes after specified dates to speed the transition to fossil fuels. At the same time, at least 20 states have passed laws or regulations prohibiting the natural gas ban.
Natural gas has long been marketed as a clean fuel, but research into its health and environmental effects is challenging that idea.
On January 9, 2023, the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission announced that it would consider action to ban gas stoves or regulate hazardous emissions. The agency has not yet offered specific steps and said any regulations “will involve a long process”.
As an environmental health researcher who works on housing and indoor air, I have been involved in studies that measured air pollution in homes and built models to predict how indoor sources would contribute to pollution air in different types of houses. Here’s a perspective on how gas stoves can contribute to indoor air pollution and whether you should consider moving away from gas.
One of the major air pollutants commonly associated with the use of gas stoves is nitrogen dioxide, or NO₂, which is a byproduct of fuel combustion. Nitrogen dioxide exposures in homes have been associated with more severe asthma and increased use of rescue inhalers in children. This gas can also affect adults with asthma and contributes to both the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Nitrogen dioxide in homes comes from both outdoor air that seeps indoors and from indoor sources. Road traffic is the most important external source; unsurprisingly, levels are higher near major highways. Gas stoves are often the largest indoor source, with a greater contribution from larger burners that last longer.
The position of the gas industry is that gas stoves are a minor source of indoor air pollutants. This is true in some homes, especially with exposures averaged over months or years.
But there are many homes in which gas stoves contribute more to indoor nitrogen dioxide levels than pollution from outdoor sources, especially for short-term “peak” exposures while cooking. For example, a study in Southern California showed that about half of homes exceeded a health standard based on the highest hour of nitrogen dioxide concentrations, almost entirely due to indoor emissions.
How can a gas stove contribute more to your exposure than an entire freeway full of vehicles? The answer is that outdoor pollution disperses over a large area, while indoor pollution concentrates in a small space.
Ventilation is an essential tool for improving indoor air quality in homes.
The amount of indoor pollution you get from a gas stove is affected by the structure of your home, which means indoor environmental exposures to NO₂ are higher for some people than for others. People who live in large homes have functional range hoods that vent to the outside and have well-ventilated homes, in general, will be less exposed than those in smaller homes with poorer ventilation.
But even large homes can be affected by using a gas stove, especially since the air in the kitchen doesn’t immediately mix with cleaner air elsewhere in the house. Using a range hood when cooking or other ventilation strategies, such as opening kitchen windows, can significantly reduce concentrations.
Methane and Hazardous Air Pollutants
Nitrogen dioxide is not the only pollutant of concern from gas stoves. Some pollution with potential impacts on human health and the Earth’s climate occurs when stoves aren’t even working.
A 2022 study estimated that unused US gas stoves emit methane – a colorless, odorless gas that is the main component of natural gas – at a level that traps as much heat in the atmosphere as about 400,000 cars. .
Some of these leaks may go unnoticed. Although gas distributors add an odorant to natural gas to ensure that people will smell leaks before there is a risk of an explosion, the odor may not be strong enough for residents to notice small leaks.
Some people also have a much stronger sense of smell than others. In particular, those who have lost their sense of smell may not smell even large leaks. A recent study found that 5% of homes had leaks that homeowners hadn’t detected that were large enough to require repair.
This same study showed that natural gas leaks contained several hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, a carcinogen. Although measured concentrations of benzene have not reached levels of health concern, the presence of these hazardous air pollutants could be problematic in homes with large leaks and poor ventilation.
Reasons to change: health and climate
So if you live in a house with a gas stove, what should you do and when should you be worried? First, do what you can to improve ventilation, such as running a range hood that exhausts to the outdoors and opening kitchen windows while cooking. This will help, but it won’t eliminate exposures, especially for household members who are in the kitchen while cooking.
If you live in a smaller home or with a smaller enclosed kitchen, and if someone in your home has a respiratory condition like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exposures can still be a concern, even with good ventilation. Replacing a gas stove with a magnetic induction stove would eliminate this exposure while providing climate benefits.
There are several incentive programs to support gas stove switches, given their importance in slowing climate change. For example, the recently signed Reducing Inflation Act 2022, which includes many provisions to combat climate change, offers rebates for the purchase of high-efficiency electrical appliances such as cookers.
Ditching gas stoves is especially important if you’re investing in home energy efficiency measures, whether you’re doing it to take advantage of incentives, reduce energy costs, or reduce your carbon footprint. Certain steps in weatherization can reduce air leakage to the outdoors, which in turn can increase indoor air pollution concentrations if residents do not also improve kitchen ventilation.
In my opinion, even if you’re not determined to reduce your carbon footprint – or if you’re just looking for ways to cook pasta faster – the opportunity for cleaner air inside your home can be a strong motivation to make the change.
This article was originally published on The conversation by Jonathan Levy at Boston University. Read the original article here.